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Novel uses of nanoparticle catalytic systems

Posted on 23. May, 2013.

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Easily prepared and recoverable nanoparticles with a diameter of 10–40 nm, with a high surface area and stability may provide a catalytic system or the support for a catalyst.

A significant number of papers published by the Journal of Chemical Research in 2012–13 were devoted to synthetic topics.  Among these have been a number reporting the application of nanoparticle catalytic systems.  Easily prepared and recoverable nanoparticles with a diameter of 10–40 nm and having a high surface area and stability may provide the catalytic system itself or the support for a catalyst. In a number of cases, they have been re-used several times.   An interesting example was provided1 by the use of a sulfamic acid functionalised iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle as an efficient solid acid-catalyst for a multi-component condensation between an aryl aldehyde, 2-naphthol and an amide. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst could be recovered by ‘magnetic decantation’.  The large surface area to volume ratio of zinc oxide nanoparticles, prepared from a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide, have made them versatile catalysts for ‘click chemistry’ in the preparation of 1,4-disubstituted triazoles from organic azides and acetylenes2 and for a multi-component synthesis of octahydroquinazolinone derivatives from aryl aldehydes, dimedone and urea.3  Coated silver nanoparticles have been reported4 as catalysts for a Biginelli-type reaction leading to 3,4-dihydropyrimidino-2(1H)-ones.  Stable silica gel nanoparticles have provided supports for boron trifluoride as a catalyst for the important Hantzsch synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines5 and for perchloric acid in the synthesis of bicoumarin derivatives from aromatic aldehydes and 4-hydroxycoumarins.6 Boron tribromide on an alumina support was also described7 as a heterogeneous catalyst for a solvent-free synthesis  of 3,4-dihydropyrimidino-2(1H)-ones.  Iron nanoparticles have been used8 to promote the copper(1) catalysed homocoupling of benzyl halides to form 1,2-diarylethanes.

1. H. Yarahmadi and H.R.Shaterian, J.Chem.Res., 2012, 36, 52.
2. B. Sadeghi, A.Hassanabadi and M. Kamali, J.Chem. Res., 2012, 36, 9.
3. B.Sadeghi, Z.Nasirian and A. Hassanabadi,  J.Chem.Res., 2012, 36, 391.
4. B.Sadeghi, S.Zavar and A.Hassanabadi, J.Chem. Res., 2012, 36, 343.
5. B.Sadeghi, A.Namakkoubi and A.Hassanabadi, J.Chem.Res., 2013, 37, 11.
6. B.Sadeghi, J.Chem.Res., 2013, 37,171.
7. X.Zhou, T.Cheng, X.Zheng, Q.Ke and X.Wang, J.Chem. Res., 2012, 36, 213.
8. M.Shekarriz, M.Adib, T.Bibani and S.Tahgipour, J.Chem. Res., 2012, 36, 29.