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Lithium-ion batteries on micro and nano scales

Posted on 24. October, 2012.

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Lithium-ion batteries offer high energy density, flexibility, lightness in weight, design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. A brief historical review of the development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries highlights the research strategies and the challenges of the synthesis, characterisation, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. Moving from bulk materials to the nanoscale can significantly change electrode and electrolyte properties and consequently their performance in devices for energy storage and conversion.

Link to Development of lithium-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials: its issues and challenges

Harish Kumar, Sundar Rajan and A K Shukla

ABSTRACT
Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexibility, lightness in weight, design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. A brief historical review is given of the development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, highlighting the ongoing research strategies, and highlighting the challenges regarding synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. This work is primarily focused on development of Li-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials and some of the critical issues namely, electrode preparation, synthesis, and electrochemical characterization. Thinner, lighter, space effective, high capacity, power and energy density and shape-flexible batteries with larger autonomy are in constant demand. Such demand will continue to generate much research activity towards the development of new cell configurations with desired properties. The Li-based battery chemistry is relatively young, and as such is a source of aspirations as well as numerous exciting challenges. The latter are not limited to solid-state chemists. The effort should be highly multidisciplinary. Here the goal is well defined, to produce batteries with lighter, smarter, cheap, powerful, very high cycle life, high energy storage density and, of course, to be environment friendly. As Li-rechargeable batteries enter their teenage years, scientists and engineers predict an even brighter future lies ahead. This review demonstrates how moving from bulk materials to the nanoscale can significantly change electrode and electrolyte properties and consequently their performance in devices for energy storage and conversion. In some cases, the effects may be simple consequences of a reduction in size, for example, when nanoparticulate electrodes or electrocatalysts lead to higher electrode/electrolyte contact area and hence higher rate of electrode reaction. Space-charge effects at the interface between small particles can result in substantial improvements of properties. There is a profound effect of spatial confinement and contribution of surfaces, due to small particle size, on many of the properties of materials. In this review, we hope to have conveyed the message that the field of energy storage is advancing faster than it perhaps has ever done in the past.

DOI: 10.3184/003685012X13421145651372

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